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Google Professional-Data-Engineer Sample Question Answers

Question # 1

You have a query that filters a BigQuery table using a WHERE clause on timestamp and ID columns. By using bq query – -dry_run you learn that the query triggers a full scan of the table, even though the filter on timestamp and ID select a tiny fraction of the overall data. You want to reduce the amount of data scanned by BigQuery with minimal changes to existing SQL queries. What should you do?

A. Create a separate table for each ID.
B. Use the LIMIT keyword to reduce the number of rows returned.
C. Recreate the table with a partitioning column and clustering column.
D. Use the bq query - -maximum_bytes_billed flag to restrict the number of bytes billed.

Question # 2

You work for a bank. You have a labelled dataset that contains information on already granted loan application and whether these applications have been defaulted. You have been asked to train a model to predict default rates for credit applicants. What should you do?

A. Increase the size of the dataset by collecting additional data.
B. Train a linear regression to predict a credit default risk score.
C. Remove the bias from the data and collect applications that have been declined loans.
D. Match loan applicants with their social profiles to enable feature engineering

Question # 3

You’ve migrated a Hadoop job from an on-prem cluster to dataproc and GCS. Your Spark job is a complicated analytical workload that consists of many shuffing operations and initial data are parquet files (on average 200-400 MB size each). You see some degradation in performance after the migration to Dataproc, so you’d like to optimize for it. You need to keep in mind that your organization is very cost-sensitive, so you’d like to continue using Dataproc on preemptibles (with 2 non-preemptible workers only) for this workload. What should you do?

A. Increase the size of your parquet files to ensure them to be 1 GB minimum.
B. Switch to TFRecords formats (appr. 200MB per file) instead of parquet files.
C. Switch from HDDs to SSDs, copy initial data from GCS to HDFS, run the Spark job and copy results back to GCS.
D. Switch from HDDs to SSDs, override the preemptible VMs configuration to increase the boot disk size.

Question # 4

You have a data pipeline with a Cloud Dataflow job that aggregates and writes time series metrics to Cloud Bigtable. This data feeds a dashboard used by thousands of users across the organization. You need to support additional concurrent users and reduce the amount of time required to write the data. Which two actions should you take? (Choose two.) 

A. Configure your Cloud Dataflow pipeline to use local execution
B. Increase the maximum number of Cloud Dataflow workers by setting maxNumWorkers in PipelineOptions
C. Increase the number of nodes in the Cloud Bigtable cluster
D. Modify your Cloud Dataflow pipeline to use the Flatten transform before writing to Cloud Bigtable
E. Modify your Cloud Dataflow pipeline to use the CoGroupByKey transform before writing to Cloud Bigtable

Question # 5

Your neural network model is taking days to train. You want to increase the training speed. What can you do?

A. Subsample your test dataset.
B. Subsample your training dataset.
C. Increase the number of input features to your model.
D. Increase the number of layers in your neural network.

Question # 6

Your company has a hybrid cloud initiative. You have a complex data pipeline that moves data between cloud provider services and leverages services from each of the cloud providers. Which cloud-native service should you use to orchestrate the entire pipeline?

A. Cloud Dataflow
B. Cloud Composer
C. Cloud Dataprep
D. Cloud Dataproc

Question # 7

A data scientist has created a BigQuery ML model and asks you to create an ML pipeline to serve predictions. You have a REST API application with the requirement to serve predictions for an individual user ID with latency under 100 milliseconds. You use the following query to generate predictions: SELECT predicted_label, user_id FROM ML.PREDICT (MODEL ‘dataset.model’, table user_features). How should you create the ML pipeline?

A. Add a WHERE clause to the query, and grant the BigQuery Data Viewer role to the application service account.
B. Create an Authorized View with the provided query. Share the dataset that contains the view with the application service account.
C. Create a Cloud Dataflow pipeline using BigQueryIO to read results from the query. Grant the Dataflow Worker role to the application service account.
D. Create a Cloud Dataflow pipeline using BigQueryIO to read predictions for all users from the query. Write the results to Cloud Bigtable using BigtableIO. Grant the Bigtable Reader role to the application service account so that the application can read predictions for individual users from Cloud Bigtable.

Question # 8

You work for a global shipping company. You want to train a model on 40 TB of data to predict which ships in each geographic region are likely to cause delivery delays on any given day. The model will be based on multiple attributes collected from multiple sources. Telemetry data, including location in GeoJSON format, will be pulled from each ship and loaded every hour. You want to have a dashboard that shows how many and which ships are likely to cause delays within a region. You want to use a storage solution that has native functionality for prediction and geospatial processing. Which storage solution should you use?

A. BigQuery
B. Cloud Bigtable
C. Cloud Datastore
D. Cloud SQL for PostgreSQL

Question # 9

You are designing a data processing pipeline. The pipeline must be able to scale automatically as load increases. Messages must be processed at least once, and must be ordered within windows of 1 hour. How should you design the solution? 

A. Use Apache Kafka for message ingestion and use Cloud Dataproc for streaming analysis.
B. Use Apache Kafka for message ingestion and use Cloud Dataflow for streaming analysis.
C. Use Cloud Pub/Sub for message ingestion and Cloud Dataproc for streaming analysis.
D. Use Cloud Pub/Sub for message ingestion and Cloud Dataflow for streaming analysis.

Question # 10

You are designing storage for 20 TB of text files as part of deploying a data pipeline on Google Cloud. Your input data is in CSV format. You want to minimize the cost of querying aggregate values for multiple users who will query the data in Cloud Storage with multiple engines. Which storage service and schema design should you use?

A. Use Cloud Bigtable for storage. Install the HBase shell on a Compute Engine instance to query the Cloud Bigtable data.
B. Use Cloud Bigtable for storage. Link as permanent tables in BigQuery for query.
C. Use Cloud Storage for storage. Link as permanent tables in BigQuery for query.
D. Use Cloud Storage for storage. Link as temporary tables in BigQuery for query.

Question # 11

You are creating a new pipeline in Google Cloud to stream IoT data from Cloud Pub/Sub through Cloud Data flow to BigQuery. While previewing the data, you notice that roughly 2% of the data appears to be corrupt. You need to modify the Cloud Dataflow pipeline to filter out this corrupt data. What should you do?

A. Add a SideInput that returns a Boolean if the element is corrupt.
B. Add a ParDo transform in Cloud Dataflow to discard corrupt elements.
C. Add a Partition transform in Cloud Dataflow to separate valid data from corrupt data.
D. Add a GroupByKey transform in Cloud Dataflow to group all of the valid data together and discard the rest.

Question # 12

You have data pipelines running on BigQuery, Cloud Dataflow, and Cloud Dataproc. You need to perform health checks and monitor their behavior, and then notify the team managing the pipelines if they fail. You also need to be able to work across multiple projects. Your preference is to use managed products of features of the platform. What should you do? 

A. Export the information to Cloud Stackdriver, and set up an Alerting policy
B. Run a Virtual Machine in Compute Engine with Airflow, and export the information to Stackdriver
C. Export the logs to BigQuery, and set up App Engine to read that information and send emails if you find a failure in the logs
D. Develop an App Engine application to consume logs using GCP API calls, and send emails if you find a failure in the logs

Question # 13

You’re using Bigtable for a real-time application, and you have a heavy load that is a mix of read and writes. You’ve recently identified an additional use case and need to perform hourly an analytical job to calculate certain statistics across the whole database. You need to ensure both the reliability of your production application as well as the analytical workload. What should you do?

A. Export Bigtable dump to GCS and run your analytical job on top of the exported files.
B. Add a second cluster to an existing instance with a multi-cluster routing, use live-traffic app profile for your regular workload and batch-analytics profile for the analytics workload.
C. Add a second cluster to an existing instance with a single-cluster routing, use live-traffic app profile for your regular workload and batch-analytics profile for the analytics workload.
D. Increase the size of your existing cluster twice and execute your analytics workload on your new resized cluster.

Question # 14

Your financial services company is moving to cloud technology and wants to store 50 TB of financial timeseries data in the cloud. This data is updated frequently and new data will be streaming in all the time. Your company also wants to move their existing Apache Hadoop jobs to the cloud to get insights into this data. Which product should they use to store the data?

A. Cloud Bigtable
B. Google BigQuery
C. Google Cloud Storage
D. Google Cloud Datastore

Question # 15

You have an Apache Kafka Cluster on-prem with topics containing web application logs. You need to replicate the data to Google Cloud for analysis in BigQuery and Cloud Storage. The preferred replication method is mirroring to avoid deployment of Kafka Connect plugins. What should you do?

A. Deploy a Kafka cluster on GCE VM Instances. Configure your on-prem cluster to mirror your topics to the cluster running in GCE. Use a Dataproc cluster or Dataflow job to read from Kafka and write to GCS.
B. Deploy a Kafka cluster on GCE VM Instances with the PubSub Kafka connector configured as a Sink connector. Use a Dataproc cluster or Dataflow job to read from Kafka and write to GCS.
C. Deploy the PubSub Kafka connector to your on-prem Kafka cluster and configure PubSub as a Source connector. Use a Dataflow job to read fron PubSub and write to GCS.
D. Deploy the PubSub Kafka connector to your on-prem Kafka cluster and configure PubSub as a Sink connector. Use a Dataflow job to read fron PubSub and write to GCS.

Question # 16

You operate an IoT pipeline built around Apache Kafka that normally receives around 5000 messages per second. You want to use Google Cloud Platform to create an alert as soon as the moving average over 1 hour drops below 4000 messages per second. What should you do?

A. Consume the stream of data in Cloud Dataflow using Kafka IO. Set a sliding time window of 1 hour every 5 minutes. Compute the average when the window closes, and send an alert if the average is less than 4000 messages.
B. Consume the stream of data in Cloud Dataflow using Kafka IO. Set a fixed time window of 1 hour. Compute the average when the window closes, and send an alert if the average is less than 4000 messages
C. Use Kafka Connect to link your Kafka message queue to Cloud Pub/Sub. Use a Cloud Dataflow template to write your messages from Cloud Pub/Sub to Cloud Bigtable. Use Cloud Scheduler to run a script every hour that counts the number of rows created in Cloud Bigtable in the last hour. If that number falls below 4000, send an alert
D. Use Kafka Connect to link your Kafka message queue to Cloud Pub/Sub. Use a Cloud Dataflow template to write your messages from Cloud Pub/Sub to BigQuery. Use Cloud Scheduler to run a script every five minutes that counts the number of rows created in BigQuery in the last hour. If that number falls below 4000, send an alert. 

Question # 17

You are integrating one of your internal IT applications and Google BigQuery, so users can query BigQuery from the application’s interface. You do not want individual users to authenticate to BigQuery and you do not want to give them access to the dataset. You need to securely access BigQuery from your IT application. What should you do? 

A. Create groups for your users and give those groups access to the dataset
B. Integrate with a single sign-on (SSO) platform, and pass each user’s credentials along with the query request
C. Create a service account and grant dataset access to that account. Use the service account’s private key to access the dataset
D. Create a dummy user and grant dataset access to that user. Store the username and password for that user in a file on the files system, and use those credentials to access the BigQuery dataset

Question # 18

You need to create a data pipeline that copies time-series transaction data so that it can be queried from within BigQuery by your data science team for analysis. Every hour, thousands of transactions are updated with a new status. The size of the intitial dataset is 1.5 PB, and it will grow by 3 TB per day. The data is heavily structured, and your data science team will build machine learning models based on this data. You want to maximize performance and usability for your data science team. Which two strategies should you adopt? Choose 2 answers.

A. Denormalize the data as must as possible.
B. Preserve the structure of the data as much as possible.
C. Use BigQuery UPDATE to further reduce the size of the dataset.
D. Develop a data pipeline where status updates are appended to BigQuery instead of updated.
E. Copy a daily snapshot of transaction data to Cloud Storage and store it as an Avro file. Use BigQuery’s support for external data sources to query.

Question # 19

You are developing an application that uses a recommendation engine on Google Cloud. Your solution should display new videos to customers based on past views. Your solution needs to generate labels for the entities in videos that the customer has viewed. Your design must be able to provide very fast filtering suggestions based on data from other customer preferences on several TB of data. What should you do? 

A. Build and train a complex classification model with Spark MLlib to generate labels and filter the results. Deploy the models using Cloud Dataproc. Call the model from your application.
B. Build and train a classification model with Spark MLlib to generate labels. Build and train a second classification model with Spark MLlib to filter results to match customer preferences. Deploy the models using Cloud Dataproc. Call the models from your application.
C. Build an application that calls the Cloud Video Intelligence API to generate labels. Store data in Cloud Bigtable, and filter the predicted labels to match the user’s viewing history to generate preferences.
D. Build an application that calls the Cloud Video Intelligence API to generate labels. Store data in Cloud SQL, and join and filter the predicted labels to match the user’s viewing history to generate preferences.

Question # 20

You need to create a near real-time inventory dashboard that reads the main inventory tables in your BigQuery data warehouse. Historical inventory data is stored as inventory balances by item and location. You have several thousand updates to inventory every hour. You want to maximize performance of the dashboard and ensure that the data is accurate. What should you do? 

A. Leverage BigQuery UPDATE statements to update the inventory balances as they are changing.
B. Partition the inventory balance table by item to reduce the amount of data scanned with each inventory update.
C. Use the BigQuery streaming the stream changes into a daily inventory movement table. Calculate balances in a view that joins it to the historical inventory balance table. Update the inventory balance table nightly.
D. Use the BigQuery bulk loader to batch load inventory changes into a daily inventory movement table. Calculate balances in a view that joins it to the historical inventory balance table. Update the inventory balance table nightly.

Question # 21

You are building a new data pipeline to share data between two different types of applications: jobs generators and job runners. Your solution must scale to accommodate increases in usage and must accommodate the addition of new applications without negatively affecting the performance of existing ones. What should you do?

A. Create an API using App Engine to receive and send messages to the applications
B. Use a Cloud Pub/Sub topic to publish jobs, and use subscriptions to execute them
C. Create a table on Cloud SQL, and insert and delete rows with the job information
D. Create a table on Cloud Spanner, and insert and delete rows with the job information

Question # 22

You are responsible for writing your company’s ETL pipelines to run on an Apache Hadoop cluster. The pipeline will require some checkpointing and splitting pipelines. Which method should you use to write the pipelines?

A. PigLatin using Pig
B. HiveQL using Hive
C. Java using MapReduce
D. Python using MapReduce

Question # 23

Your team is responsible for developing and maintaining ETLs in your company. One of your Dataflow jobs is failing because of some errors in the input data, and you need to improve reliability of the pipeline (incl. being able to reprocess all failing data). What should you do?

A. Add a filtering step to skip these types of errors in the future, extract erroneous rows from logs.
B. Add a try… catch block to your DoFn that transforms the data, extract erroneous rows from logs.
C. Add a try… catch block to your DoFn that transforms the data, write erroneous rows to PubSub directly from the DoFn.
D. Add a try… catch block to your DoFn that transforms the data, use a sideOutput to create a PCollection that can be stored to PubSub later.

Question # 24

You need to copy millions of sensitive patient records from a relational database to BigQuery. The total size of the database is 10 TB. You need to design a solution that is secure and time-efficient. What should you do?

A. Export the records from the database as an Avro file. Upload the file to GCS using gsutil, and then load the Avro file into BigQuery using the BigQuery web UI in the GCP Console.
B. Export the records from the database as an Avro file. Copy the file onto a Transfer Appliance and send it to Google, and then load the Avro file into BigQuery using the BigQuery web UI in the GCP Console.
C. Export the records from the database into a CSV file. Create a public URL for the CSV file, and then use Storage Transfer Service to move the file to Cloud Storage. Load the CSV file into BigQuery using the BigQuery web UI in the GCP Console.
D. Export the records from the database as an Avro file. Create a public URL for the Avro file, and then use Storage Transfer Service to move the file to Cloud Storage. Load the Avro file into BigQuery using the BigQuery web UI in the GCP Console.

Question # 25

You need to move 2 PB of historical data from an on-premises storage appliance to Cloud Storage within six months, and your outbound network capacity is constrained to 20 Mb/sec. How should you migrate this data to Cloud Storage?

A. Use Transfer Appliance to copy the data to Cloud Storage Use gsutil cp –J to compress the content being uploaded to Cloud Storage
B. Create a private URL for the historical data, and then use Storage Transfer Service to copy the data to Cloud Storage
C. Use trickle or ionice along with gsutil cp to limit the amount of bandwidth gsutil utilizes to less than 20
D. Mb/sec so it does not interfere with the production traffic

Question # 26

You architect a system to analyze seismic data. Your extract, transform, and load (ETL) process runs as a series of MapReduce jobs on an Apache Hadoop cluster. The ETL process takes days to process a data set because some steps are computationally expensive. Then you discover that a sensor calibration step has been omitted. How should you change your ETL process to carry out sensor calibration systematically in the future?

A. Modify the transformMapReduce jobs to apply sensor calibration before they do anything else.
B. Introduce a new MapReduce job to apply sensor calibration to raw data, and ensure all other MapReduce jobs are chained after this.
C. Add sensor calibration data to the output of the ETL process, and document that all users need to apply sensor calibration themselves.
D. Develop an algorithm through simulation to predict variance of data output from the last MapReduce job based on calibration factors, and apply the correction to all data.

Question # 27

Government regulations in your industry mandate that you have to maintain an auditable record of access to certain types of datA. Assuming that all expiring logs will be archived correctly, where should you store data that is subject to that mandate? 

A. Encrypted on Cloud Storage with user-supplied encryption keys. A separate decryption key will be given to each authorized user.
B. In a BigQuery dataset that is viewable only by authorized personnel, with the Data Access log used to provide the auditability.
C. In Cloud SQL, with separate database user names to each user. The Cloud SQL Admin activity logs will be used to provide the auditability.
D. In a bucket on Cloud Storage that is accessible only by an AppEngine service that collects user information and logs the access before providing a link to the bucket.

Question # 28

You set up a streaming data insert into a Redis cluster via a Kafka cluster. Both clusters are running on Compute Engine instances. You need to encrypt data at rest with encryption keys that you can create, rotate, and destroy as needed. What should you do?

A. Create a dedicated service account, and use encryption at rest to reference your data stored in your Compute Engine cluster instances as part of your API service calls.
B. Create encryption keys in Cloud Key Management Service. Use those keys to encrypt your data in all of the Compute Engine cluster instances.
C. Create encryption keys locally. Upload your encryption keys to Cloud Key Management Service. Use those keys to encrypt your data in all of the Compute Engine cluster instances.
D. Create encryption keys in Cloud Key Management Service. Reference those keys in your API service calls when accessing the data in your Compute Engine cluster instances.

Question # 29

You need to set access to BigQuery for different departments within your company. Your solution should comply with the following requirements:Each department should have access only to their data.Each department will have one or more leads who need to be able to create and update tables andprovide them to their team.Each department has data analysts who need to be able to query but not modify data.How should you set access to the data in BigQuery?

A. Create a dataset for each department. Assign the department leads the role of OWNER, and assign the data analysts the role of WRITER on their dataset.
B. Create a dataset for each department. Assign the department leads the role of WRITER, and assign the data analysts the role of READER on their dataset.
C. Create a table for each department. Assign the department leads the role of Owner, and assign the data analysts the role of Editor on the project the table is in.
D. Create a table for each department. Assign the department leads the role of Editor, and assign the data analysts the role of Viewer on the project the table is in.

Question # 30

After migrating ETL jobs to run on BigQuery, you need to verify that the output of the migrated jobs is the same as the output of the original. You’ve loaded a table containing the output of the original job and want to compare the contents with output from the migrated job to show that they are identical. The tables do not contain a primary key column that would enable you to join them together for comparison.What should you do? 

A. Select random samples from the tables using the RAND() function and compare the samples.
B. Select random samples from the tables using the HASH() function and compare the samples.
C. Use a Dataproc cluster and the BigQuery Hadoop connector to read the data from each table and calculate a hash from non-timestamp columns of the table after sorting. Compare the hashes of each table.
D. Create stratified random samples using the OVER() function and compare equivalent samples from each table.

Question # 31

You are a retailer that wants to integrate your online sales capabilities with different in-home assistants, such as Google Home. You need to interpret customer voice commands and issue an order to the backend systems. Which solutions should you choose?

A. Cloud Speech-to-Text API
B. Cloud Natural Language API
C. Dialogflow Enterprise Edition
D. Cloud AutoML Natural Language

Question # 32

You need to create a new transaction table in Cloud Spanner that stores product sales data. You are deciding what to use as a primary key. From a performance perspective, which strategy should you choose?

A. The current epoch time
B. A concatenation of the product name and the current epoch time
C. A random universally unique identifier number (version 4 UUID)
D. The original order identification number from the sales system, which is a monotonically increasing integer

Question # 33

You have some data, which is shown in the graphic below. The two dimensions are X and Y, and the shade of each dot represents what class it is. You want to classify this data accurately using a linear algorithm. To do this you need to add a synthetic feature. What should the value of that feature be?

A. X^2+Y^2
B. X^2
C. Y^2
D. cos(X)

Question # 34

You have a data stored in BigQuery. The data in the BigQuery dataset must be highly available. You need to define a storage, backup, and recovery strategy of this data that minimizes cost. How should you configure the BigQuery table?

A. Set the BigQuery dataset to be regional. In the event of an emergency, use a point-in-time snapshot to recover the data.
B. Set the BigQuery dataset to be regional. Create a scheduled query to make copies of the data to tables suffixed with the time of the backup. In the event of an emergency, use the backup copy of the table.
C. Set the BigQuery dataset to be multi-regional. In the event of an emergency, use a point-in-time snapshot to recover the data.
D. Set the BigQuery dataset to be multi-regional. Create a scheduled query to make copies of the data to tables suffixed with the time of the backup. In the event of an emergency, use the backup copy of the table.

Question # 35

You need to choose a database for a new project that has the following requirements:Fully managedAble to automatically scale upTransactionally consistentAble to scale up to 6 TBAble to be queried using SQLWhich database do you choose?

A. Cloud SQL
B. Cloud Bigtable
C. Cloud Spanner
D. Cloud Datastore

Question # 36

Your analytics team wants to build a simple statistical model to determine which customers are most likely to work with your company again, based on a few different metrics. They want to run the model on Apache Spark, using data housed in Google Cloud Storage, and you have recommended using Google Cloud Dataproc to execute this job. Testing has shown that this workload can run in approximately 30 minutes on a 15-node cluster, outputting the results into Google BigQuery. The plan is to run this workload weekly. How should you optimize the cluster for cost?

A. Migrate the workload to Google Cloud Dataflow
B. Use pre-emptible virtual machines (VMs) for the cluster
C. Use a higher-memory node so that the job runs faster
D. Use SSDs on the worker nodes so that the job can run faster

Question # 37

You need to deploy additional dependencies to all of a Cloud Dataproc cluster at startup using an existing initialization action. Company security policies require that Cloud Dataproc nodes do not have access to the Internet so public initialization actions cannot fetch resources. What should you do?

A. Deploy the Cloud SQL Proxy on the Cloud Dataproc master
B. Use an SSH tunnel to give the Cloud Dataproc cluster access to the Internet
C. Copy all dependencies to a Cloud Storage bucket within your VPC security perimeter
D. Use Resource Manager to add the service account used by the Cloud Dataproc cluster to the Network User role

Question # 38

You are designing a cloud-native historical data processing system to meet the following conditions:The data being analyzed is in CSV, Avro, and PDF formats and will be accessed by multiple analysistools including Cloud Dataproc, BigQuery, and Compute Engine.A streaming data pipeline stores new data daily.Peformance is not a factor in the solution.The solution design should maximize availability.How should you design data storage for this solution?

A. Create a Cloud Dataproc cluster with high availability. Store the data in HDFS, and peform analysis asneeded.
B. Store the data in BigQuery. Access the data using the BigQuery Connector or Cloud Dataproc andCompute Engine.
C. Store the data in a regional Cloud Storage bucket. Aceess the bucket directly using Cloud Dataproc,BigQuery, and Compute Engine.
D. Store the data in a multi-regional Cloud Storage bucket. Access the data directly using Cloud Dataproc,BigQuery, and Compute Engine.

Question # 39

You use a dataset in BigQuery for analysis. You want to provide third-party companies with access to the same dataset. You need to keep the costs of data sharing low and ensure that the data is current. Which solution should you choose?

A. Create an authorized view on the BigQuery table to control data access, and provide third-party companies with access to that view.
B. Use Cloud Scheduler to export the data on a regular basis to Cloud Storage, and provide third-party companies with access to the bucket.
C. Create a separate dataset in BigQuery that contains the relevant data to share, and provide third-party companies with access to the new dataset.
D. Create a Cloud Dataflow job that reads the data in frequent time intervals, and writes it to the relevant BigQuery dataset or Cloud Storage bucket for third-party companies to use.

Question # 40

You are implementing several batch jobs that must be executed on a schedule. These jobs have many interdependent steps that must be executed in a specific order. Portions of the jobs involve executing shell scripts, running Hadoop jobs, and running queries in BigQuery. The jobs are expected to run for many minutes up to several hours. If the steps fail, they must be retried a fixed number of times. Which service should you use to manage the execution of these jobs?

A. Cloud Scheduler
B. Cloud Dataflow
C. Cloud Functions
D. Cloud Composer

Question # 41

You are implementing security best practices on your data pipeline. Currently, you are manually executing jobs as the Project Owner. You want to automate these jobs by taking nightly batch files containing non-public information from Google Cloud Storage, processing them with a Spark Scala job on a Google Cloud Dataproc cluster, and depositing the results into Google BigQuery.How should you securely run this workload? 

A. Restrict the Google Cloud Storage bucket so only you can see the files
B. Grant the Project Owner role to a service account, and run the job with it
C. Use a service account with the ability to read the batch files and to write to BigQuery
Use a user account with the Project Viewer role on the Cloud Dataproc cluster to read the batch files and write to BigQuery 

Question # 42

You store historic data in Cloud Storage. You need to perform analytics on the historic data. You want to use a solution to detect invalid data entries and perform data transformations that will not require programming or knowledge of SQL.What should you do?

A. Use Cloud Dataflow with Beam to detect errors and perform transformations.
B. Use Cloud Dataprep with recipes to detect errors and perform transformations.
C. Use Cloud Dataproc with a Hadoop job to detect errors and perform transformations.
D. Use federated tables in BigQuery with queries to detect errors and perform transformations.

Question # 43

You are managing a Cloud Dataproc cluster. You need to make a job run faster while minimizing costs, without losing work in progress on your clusters. What should you do?

A. Increase the cluster size with more non-preemptible workers.
B. Increase the cluster size with preemptible worker nodes, and configure them to forcefully decommission.
C. Increase the cluster size with preemptible worker nodes, and use Cloud Stackdriver to trigger a script to preserve work.
D. Increase the cluster size with preemptible worker nodes, and configure them to use graceful decommissioning.

Question # 44

Your globally distributed auction application allows users to bid on items. Occasionally, users place identical bids at nearly identical times, and different application servers process those bids. Each bid event contains the item, amount, user, and timestamp. You want to collate those bid events into a single location in real time to determine which user bid first. What should you do?

A. Create a file on a shared file and have the application servers write all bid events to that file. Process the file with Apache Hadoop to identify which user bid first.
B. Have each application server write the bid events to Cloud Pub/Sub as they occur. Push the events from Cloud Pub/Sub to a custom endpoint that writes the bid event information into Cloud SQL.
C. Set up a MySQL database for each application server to write bid events into. Periodically query each of those distributed MySQL databases and update a master MySQL database with bid event information.
D. Have each application server write the bid events to Google Cloud Pub/Sub as they occur. Use a pull subscription to pull the bid events using Google Cloud Dataflow. Give the bid for each item to the user in the bid event that is processed first.

Question # 45

Each analytics team in your organization is running BigQuery jobs in their own projects. You want to enable each team to monitor slot usage within their projects. What should you do?

A. Create a Stackdriver Monitoring dashboard based on the BigQuery metric query/scanned_bytes
B. Create a Stackdriver Monitoring dashboard based on the BigQuery metric slots/allocated_for_project
C. Create a log export for each project, capture the BigQuery job execution logs, create a custom metric based on the totalSlotMs, and create a Stackdriver Monitoring dashboard based on the custom metric
D. Create an aggregated log export at the organization level, capture the BigQuery job execution logs, create a custom metric based on the totalSlotMs, and create a Stackdriver Monitoring dashboard based on the custom metric

Question # 46

You are building a new application that you need to collect data from in a scalable way. Data arrives continuously from the application throughout the day, and you expect to generate approximately 150 GB of JSON data per day by the end of the year. Your requirements are:Space and cost-efficient storage of the raw ingested data, which is to be stored indefinitelyNear real-time SQL queryMaintain at least 2 years of historical data, which will be queried with SQWhich pipeline should you use to meet these requirements?

A. Create an application that provides an API. Write a tool to poll the API and write data to Cloud Storage as gzipped JSON files.
B. Create an application that writes to a Cloud SQL database to store the data. Set up periodic exports of the database to write to Cloud Storage and load into BigQuery.
C. Create an application that publishes events to Cloud Pub/Sub, and create Spark jobs on Cloud Dataproc to convert the JSON data to Avro format, stored on HDFS on Persistent Disk.
D. Create an application that publishes events to Cloud Pub/Sub, and create a Cloud Dataflow pipeline that transforms the JSON event payloads to Avro, writing the data to Cloud Storage and BigQuery.

Question # 47

You want to migrate an on-premises Hadoop system to Cloud Dataproc. Hive is the primary tool in use, and the data format is Optimized Row Columnar (ORC). All ORC files have been successfully copied to a Cloud Storage bucket. You need to replicate some data to the cluster’s local Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) to maximize performance. What are two ways to start using Hive in Cloud Dataproc? (Choose two.)

A. Run the gsutil utility to transfer all ORC files from the Cloud Storage bucket to HDFS. Mount the Hive tables locally
B. Run the gsutil utility to transfer all ORC files from the Cloud Storage bucket to any node of the Dataproc cluster. Mount the Hive tables locally.
C. Run the gsutil utility to transfer all ORC files from the Cloud Storage bucket to the master node of the Dataproc cluster. Then run the Hadoop utility to copy them do HDFS. Mount the Hive tables from HDFS.
D. Leverage Cloud Storage connector for Hadoop to mount the ORC files as external Hive tables. Replicate external Hive tables to the native ones.
E. Load the ORC files into BigQuery. Leverage BigQuery connector for Hadoop to mount the BigQuery tables as external Hive tables. Replicate external Hive tables to the native ones.

Question # 48

You have several Spark jobs that run on a Cloud Dataproc cluster on a schedule. Some of the jobs run in sequence, and some of the jobs run concurrently. You need to automate this process. What should you do?

A. Create a Cloud Dataproc Workflow Template
B. Create an initialization action to execute the jobs
C. Create a Directed Acyclic Graph in Cloud Composer
D. Create a Bash script that uses the Cloud SDK to create a cluster, execute jobs, and then tear down the cluster

Question # 49

A shipping company has live package-tracking data that is sent to an Apache Kafka stream in real time. This is then loaded into BigQuery. Analysts in your company want to query the tracking data in BigQuery to analyze geospatial trends in the lifecycle of a package. The table was originally created with ingest-date partitioning. Over time, the query processing time has increased. You need to implement a change that would improve query performance in BigQuery. What should you do? 

A. Implement clustering in BigQuery on the ingest date column.
B. Implement clustering in BigQuery on the package-tracking ID column.
C. Tier older data onto Cloud Storage files, and leverage extended tables.
D. Re-create the table using data partitioning on the package delivery date.

Question # 50

Your company is currently setting up data pipelines for their campaign. For all the Google Cloud Pub/Substreaming data, one of the important business requirements is to be able to periodically identify the inputs and their timings during their campaign. Engineers have decided to use windowing and transformation in Google Cloud Dataflow for this purpose. However, when testing this feature, they find that the Cloud Dataflow job fails for the all streaming insert. What is the most likely cause of this problem? 

A. They have not assigned the timestamp, which causes the job to fail
B. They have not set the triggers to accommodate the data coming in late, which causes the job to fail
C. They have not applied a global windowing function, which causes the job to fail when the pipeline is created
D. They have not applied a non-global windowing function, which causes the job to fail when the pipeline is created

Question # 51

You have developed three data processing jobs. One executes a Cloud Dataflow pipeline that transforms data uploaded to Cloud Storage and writes results to BigQuery. The second ingests data from on-premises servers and uploads it to Cloud Storage. The third is a Cloud Dataflow pipeline that gets information from third-party data providers and uploads the information to Cloud Storage. You need to be able to schedule and monitor the execution of these three workflows and manually execute them when needed. What should you do? 

A. Create a Direct Acyclic Graph in Cloud Composer to schedule and monitor the jobs.
B. Use Stackdriver Monitoring and set up an alert with a Webhook notification to trigger the jobs.
C. Develop an App Engine application to schedule and request the status of the jobs using GCP API calls.
D. Set up cron jobs in a Compute Engine instance to schedule and monitor the pipelines using GCP API calls.

Question # 52

You need to choose a database to store time series CPU and memory usage for millions of computers. You need to store this data in one-second interval samples. Analysts will be performing real-time, ad hoc analytics against the database. You want to avoid being charged for every query executed and ensure that the schema design will allow for future growth of the dataset. Which database and data model should you choose?

A. Create a table in BigQuery, and append the new samples for CPU and memory to the table
B. Create a wide table in BigQuery, create a column for the sample value at each second, and update the row with the interval for each second
C. Create a narrow table in Cloud Bigtable with a row key that combines the Computer Engine computer identifier with the sample time at each second
D. Create a wide table in Cloud Bigtable with a row key that combines the computer identifier with the sample time at each minute, and combine the values for each second as column data. 

Question # 53

You are using Google BigQuery as your data warehouse. Your users report that the following simple query is running very slowly, no matter when they run the query:SELECT country, state, city FROM [myproject:mydataset.mytable] GROUP BY countryYou check the query plan for the query and see the following output in the Read section of Stage:1: What is the most likely cause of the delay for this query?

A. Users are running too many concurrent queries in the system
B. The [myproject:mydataset.mytable] table has too many partitions
C. Either the state or the city columns in the [myproject:mydataset.mytable] table have too many NULL values
D. Most rows in the [myproject:mydataset.mytable] table have the same value in the country column, causing data skew

Question # 54

You operate a database that stores stock trades and an application that retrieves average stock price for a given company over an adjustable window of time. The data is stored in Cloud Bigtable where the datetime of the stock trade is the beginning of the row key. Your application has thousands of concurrent users, and you notice that performance is starting to degrade as more stocks are added. What should you do to improve the performance of your application? 

A. Change the row key syntax in your Cloud Bigtable table to begin with the stock symbol.
B. Change the row key syntax in your Cloud Bigtable table to begin with a random number per second.
C. Change the data pipeline to use BigQuery for storing stock trades, and update your application.
D. Use Cloud Dataflow to write summary of each day’s stock trades to an Avro file on Cloud Storage.Update your application to read from Cloud Storage and Cloud Bigtable to compute the responses.

Question # 55

Your United States-based company has created an application for assessing and responding to user actions.The primary table’s data volume grows by 250,000 records per second. Many third parties use yourapplication’s APIs to build the functionality into their own frontend applications. Your application’s APIsshould comply with the following requirements:Single global endpointANSI SQL supportConsistent access to the most up-to-date dataWhat should you do?

A. Implement BigQuery with no region selected for storage or processing.
B. Implement Cloud Spanner with the leader in North America and read-only replicas in Asia and Europe.
C. Implement Cloud SQL for PostgreSQL with the master in Norht America and read replicas in Asia and Europe.
D. Implement Cloud Bigtable with the primary cluster in North America and secondary clusters in Asia and Europe.

Question # 56

You have enabled the free integration between Firebase Analytics and Google BigQuery. Firebase now automatically creates a new table daily in BigQuery in the format app_events_YYYYMMDD. You want to query all of the tables for the past 30 days in legacy SQL. What should you do?

A. Use the TABLE_DATE_RANGE function
B. Use the WHERE_PARTITIONTIME pseudo column
C. Use WHERE date BETWEEN YYYY-MM-DD AND YYYY-MM-DD
D. Use SELECT IF.(date >= YYYY-MM-DD AND date <= YYYY-MM-DD

Question # 57

You work for a shipping company that uses handheld scanners to read shipping labels. Your company has strict data privacy standards that require scanners to only transmit recipients’ personally identifiable information (PII) to analytics systems, which violates user privacy rules. You want to quickly build a scalable solution using cloud-native managed services to prevent exposure of PII to the analytics systems. What should you do?

A. Create an authorized view in BigQuery to restrict access to tables with sensitive data.
B. Install a third-party data validation tool on Compute Engine virtual machines to check the incoming data for sensitive information.
C. Use Stackdriver logging to analyze the data passed through the total pipeline to identify transactions that may contain sensitive information.
D. Build a Cloud Function that reads the topics and makes a call to the Cloud Data Loss Prevention API.Use the tagging and confidence levels to either pass or quarantine the data in a bucket for review.

Question # 58

You plan to deploy Cloud SQL using MySQL. You need to ensure high availability in the event of a zone failure. What should you do?

A. Create a Cloud SQL instance in one zone, and create a failover replica in another zone within the same region.
B. Create a Cloud SQL instance in one zone, and create a read replica in another zone within the same region.
C. Create a Cloud SQL instance in one zone, and configure an external read replica in a zone in a different region.
D. Create a Cloud SQL instance in a region, and configure automatic backup to a Cloud Storage bucket in the same region.

Question # 59

Data Analysts in your company have the Cloud IAM Owner role assigned to them in their projects to allow them to work with multiple GCP products in their projects. Your organization requires that all BigQuery data access logs be retained for 6 months. You need to ensure that only audit personnel in your company can access the data access logs for all projects. What should you do?

A. Enable data access logs in each Data Analyst’s project. Restrict access to Stackdriver Logging via Cloud IAM roles.
B. Export the data access logs via a project-level export sink to a Cloud Storage bucket in the Data Analysts’ projects. Restrict access to the Cloud Storage bucket.
C. Export the data access logs via a project-level export sink to a Cloud Storage bucket in a newly created projects for audit logs. Restrict access to the project with the exported logs.
D. Export the data access logs via an aggregated export sink to a Cloud Storage bucket in a newly created project for audit logs. Restrict access to the project that contains the exported logs.

Question # 60

You work for a mid-sized enterprise that needs to move its operational system transaction data from an on-premises database to GCP. The database is about 20 TB in size. Which database should you choose? 

A. Cloud SQL
B. Cloud Bigtable
C. Cloud Spanner
D. Cloud Datastore

Question # 61

You operate a logistics company, and you want to improve event delivery reliability for vehicle-based sensors. You operate small data centers around the world to capture these events, but leased lines that provide connectivity from your event collection infrastructure to your event processing infrastructure are unreliable, with unpredictable latency. You want to address this issue in the most cost-effective way. What should you do?

A. Deploy small Kafka clusters in your data centers to buffer events.
B. Have the data acquisition devices publish data to Cloud Pub/Sub.
C. Establish a Cloud Interconnect between all remote data centers and Google.
D. Write a Cloud Dataflow pipeline that aggregates all data in session windows.

Question # 62

You work for a manufacturing company that sources up to 750 different components, each from a different supplier. You’ve collected a labeled dataset that has on average 1000 examples for each unique component. Your team wants to implement an app to help warehouse workers recognize incoming components based on a photo of the component. You want to implement the first working version of this app (as Proof-Of-Concept) within a few working days. What should you do?

A. Use Cloud Vision AutoML with the existing dataset.
B. Use Cloud Vision AutoML, but reduce your dataset twice.
C. Use Cloud Vision API by providing custom labels as recognition hints.
D. Train your own image recognition model leveraging transfer learning techniques.

Question # 63

You launched a new gaming app almost three years ago. You have been uploading log files from the previous day to a separate Google BigQuery table with the table name format LOGS_yyyymmdd. You have been using table wildcard functions to generate daily and monthly reports for all time ranges. Recently, you discovered that some queries that cover long date ranges are exceeding the limit of 1,000 tables and failing. How can you resolve this issue?

A. Convert all daily log tables into date-partitioned tables
B. Convert the sharded tables into a single partitioned table
C. Enable query caching so you can cache data from previous months
D. Create separate views to cover each month, and query from these views

Question # 64

Your company is selecting a system to centralize data ingestion and delivery. You are considering messagingand data integration systems to address the requirements. The key requirements are:The ability to seek to a particular offset in a topic, possibly back to the start of all data ever capturedSupport for publish/subscribe semantics on hundreds of topicsRetain per-key orderingWhich system should you choose?

A. Apache Kafka
B. Cloud Storage
C. Cloud Pub/Sub
D. Firebase Cloud Messaging

Question # 65

You are building an application to share financial market data with consumers, who will receive data feeds. Data is collected from the markets in real time. Consumers will receive the data in the following ways:Real-time event streamANSI SQL access to real-time stream and historical data Batch historical exportsWhich solution should you use?

A. Cloud Dataflow, Cloud SQL, Cloud Spanner
B. Cloud Pub/Sub, Cloud Storage, BigQuery
C. Cloud Dataproc, Cloud Dataflow, BigQuery
D. Cloud Pub/Sub, Cloud Dataproc, Cloud SQL

Question # 66

Your company needs to upload their historic data to Cloud Storage. The security rules don’t allow access from external IPs to their on-premises resources. After an initial upload, they will add new data from existing on-premises applications every day. What should they do?

A. Execute gsutil rsync from the on-premises servers.
B. Use Cloud Dataflow and write the data to Cloud Storage.
C. Write a job template in Cloud Dataproc to perform the data transfer.
D. Install an FTP server on a Compute Engine VM to receive the files and move them to Cloud Storage.