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Frequently Asked Questions

ISC2 SSCP Sample Question Answers

Question # 1

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding a digital signature?

A. It is a method used to encrypt confidential data.
B. It is the art of transferring handwritten signature to electronic media.
C. It allows the recipient of data to prove the source and integrity of data.
D. It can be used as a signature system and a cryptosystem.

Question # 2

Which of the following standards concerns digital certificates?

A. X.400
B. X.25
C. X.509
D. X.75

Question # 3

Which of the following offers confidentiality to an e-mail message?

A. The sender encrypting it with its private key.
B. The sender encrypting it with its public key.
C. The sender encrypting it with the receiver's public key.
D. The sender encrypting it with the receiver's private key.

Question # 4

Which of the following protects Kerberos against replay attacks?

A. Tokens
B. Passwords
C. Cryptography
D. Time stamps

Question # 5

Which of the following is not a DES mode of operation?

A. Cipher block chaining
B. Electronic code book
C. Input feedback
D. Cipher feedback

Question # 6

Which of the following algorithms is used today for encryption in PGP?

A. RSA
B. IDEA
C. Blowfish
D. RC5

Question # 7

What size is an MD5 message digest (hash)?

A. 128 bits
B. 160 bits
C. 256 bits
D. 128 bytes

Question # 8

What is the maximum allowable key size of the Rijndael encryption algorithm?

A. 128 bits
B. 192 bits
C. 256 bits
D. 512 bits

Question # 9

Which of the following service is not provided by a public key infrastructure (PKI)?

A. Access control
B. Integrity
C. Authentication
D. Reliability

Question # 10

In a Public Key Infrastructure, how are public keys published?

A. They are sent via e-mail.
B. Through digital certificates.
C. They are sent by owners.
D. They are not published.

Question # 11

Which of the following is NOT a property of the Rijndael block cipher algorithm?

A. The key sizes must be a multiple of 32 bits
B. Maximum block size is 256 bits
C. Maximum key size is 512 bits
D. The key size does not have to match the block size

Question # 12

What principle focuses on the uniqueness of separate objects that must be joined together toperform a task? It is sometimes referred to as “what each must bring” and joined together whengetting access or decrypting a file. Each of which does not reveal the other?

A. Dual control
B. Separation of duties
C. Split knowledge
D. Need to know

Question # 13

Which of the following is a symmetric encryption algorithm?

A. RSA
B. Elliptic Curve
C. RC5
D. El Gamal

Question # 14

What level of assurance for a digital certificate verifies a user's name, address, social securitynumber, and other information against a credit bureau database?

A. Level 1/Class 1
B. Level 2/Class 2
C. Level 3/Class 3
D. Level 4/Class 4

Question # 15

What algorithm has been selected as the AES algorithm, replacing the DES algorithm?

A. RC6
B. Twofish
C. Rijndael
D. Blowfish

Question # 16

Which of the following statements pertaining to block ciphers is incorrect?

A. It operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext.
B. It is more suitable for software than hardware implementations.
C. Plain text is encrypted with a public key and decrypted with a private key.
D. Some Block ciphers can operate internally as a stream.

Question # 17

What can be defined as secret communications where the very existence of the message is hidden?

A. Clustering
B. Steganography
C. Cryptology
D. Vernam cipher

Question # 18

Which of the following BEST describes a function relying on a shared secret key that is used alongwith a hashing algorithm to verify the integrity of the communication content as well as the sender?

A. Message Authentication Code - MAC
B. PAM - Pluggable Authentication Module
C. NAM - Negative Acknowledgement Message
D. Digital Signature Certificate

Question # 19

What uses a key of the same length as the message where each bit or character from the plaintext is encrypted by a modular addition?

A. Running key cipher
B. One-time pad
C. Steganography
D. Cipher block chaining

Question # 20

Complete the blanks. When using PKI, I digitally sign a message using my ______ key. Therecipient verifies my signature using my ______ key.

A. Private / Public
B. Public / Private
C. Symmetric / Asymmetric
D. Private / Symmetric

Question # 21

Which of the following is true about link encryption?

A. Each entity has a common key with the destination node.
B. Encrypted messages are only decrypted by the final node.
C. This mode does not provide protection if anyone of the nodes along the transmission path is compromised.
D. Only secure nodes are used in this type of transmission.

Question # 22

What can be defined as an instance of two different keys generating the same ciphertext from the same plaintext?

A. Key collision
B. Key clustering
C. Hashing
D. Ciphertext collision

Question # 23

Which of the following services is NOT provided by the digital signature standard (DSS)?

A. Encryption
B. Integrity
C. Digital signature
D. Authentication

Question # 24

Which of the following type of cryptography is used when both parties use the same key tocommunicate securely with each other?

A. Symmetric Key Cryptography
B. PKI - Public Key Infrastructure
C. Diffie-Hellman
D. DSS - Digital Signature Standard

Question # 25

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) uses a Message Authentication Code (MAC) for what purpose?

A. message non-repudiation.
B. message confidentiality.
C. message interleave checking.
D. message integrity.

Question # 26

Which of the following terms can be described as the process to conceal data into another file ormedia in a practice known as security through obscurity?

A. Steganography
B. ADS - Alternate Data Streams
C. Encryption
D. NTFS ADS

Question # 27

What is the RESULT of a hash algorithm being applied to a message ?

A. A digital signature
B. A ciphertext
C. A message digest
D. A plaintext

Question # 28

Which of the following keys has the SHORTEST lifespan?

A. Secret key
B. Public key
C. Session key
D. Private key

Question # 29

Which encryption algorithm is BEST suited for communication with handheld wireless devices?

A. ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem)
B. RSA
C. SHA
D. RC4

Question # 30

In what type of attack does an attacker try, from several encrypted messages, to figure out the key used in the encryption process?

A. Known-plaintext attack
B. Ciphertext-only attack
C. Chosen-Ciphertext attack
D. Plaintext-only attack

Question # 31

Which of the following answers is described as a random value used in cryptographic algorithmsto ensure that patterns are not created during the encryption process?

A. IV - Initialization Vector
B. Stream Cipher
C. OTP - One Time Pad
D. Ciphertext

Question # 32

Which of the following algorithms does NOT provide hashing?

A. SHA-1
B. MD2
C. RC4
D. MD5

Question # 33

Which type of encryption is considered to be unbreakable if the stream is truly random and is aslarge as the plaintext and never reused in whole or part?

A. One Time Pad (OTP)
B. One time Cryptopad (OTC)
C. Cryptanalysis
D. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

Question # 34

Which protocol makes USE of an electronic wallet on a customer's PC and sends encrypted credi card information to merchant's Web server, which digitally signs it and sends it on to its processing bank?

A. SSH ( Secure Shell)
B. S/MIME (Secure MIME)
C. SET (Secure Electronic Transaction)
D. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

Question # 35

When we encrypt or decrypt data there is a basic operation involving ones and zeros where theyare compared in a process that looks something like this:0101 0001 Plain text0111 0011 Key stream0010 0010 OutputWhat is this cryptographic operation called?

A. Exclusive-OR
B. Bit Swapping
C. Logical-NOR
D. Decryption

Question # 36

The Diffie-Hellman algorithm is primarily used to provide which of the following?

A. Confidentiality
B. Key Agreement
C. Integrity
D. Non-repudiation

Question # 37

You work in a police department forensics lab where you examine computers for evidence ofcrimes. Your work is vital to the success of the prosecution of criminals.One day you receive a laptop and are part of a two man team responsible for examining ittogether. However, it is lunch time and after receiving the laptop you leave it on your desk and youboth head out to lunch.What critical step in forensic evidence have you forgotten?

A. Chain of custody
B. Locking the laptop in your desk
C. Making a disk image for examination
D. Cracking the admin password with chntpw

Question # 38

Which of the following ASYMMETRIC encryption algorithms is based on the difficulty of FACTORING LARGE NUMBERS?

A. El Gamal
B. Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems (ECCs)
C. RSA
D. International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)

Question # 39

What is NOT true about a one-way hashing function?

A. It provides authentication of the message
B. A hash cannot be reverse to get the message used to create the hash
C. The results of a one-way hash is a message digest
D. It provides integrity of the message

Question # 40

Which of the following is NOT a symmetric key algorithm?

A. Blowfish
B. Digital Signature Standard (DSS)
C. Triple DES (3DES)
D. RC5

Question # 41

This type of attack is generally most applicable to public-key cryptosystems, what type of attackam I ?

A. Chosen-Ciphertext attack
B. Ciphertext-only attack
C. Plaintext Only Attack
D. Adaptive-Chosen-Plaintext attack

Question # 42

Which of the following concerning the Rijndael block cipher algorithm is false?

A. The design of Rijndael was strongly influenced by the design of the block cipher Square.
B. A total of 25 combinations of key length and block length are possible
C. Both block size and key length can be extended to multiples of 64 bits.
D. The cipher has a variable block length and key length.

Question # 43

What is the name of a one way transformation of a string of characters into a usually shorter fixedlength value or key that represents the original string? Such a transformation cannot be reversed?

A. One-way hash
B. DES
C. Transposition
D. Substitution

Question # 44

What kind of Encryption technology does SSL utilize?

A. Secret or Symmetric key
B. Hybrid (both Symmetric and Asymmetric)
C. Public Key
D. Private key

Question # 45

The computations involved in selecting keys and in enciphering data are complex, and are notpractical for manual use. However, using mathematical properties of modular arithmetic and amethod known as "_________________," RSA is quite feasible for computer use.

A. computing in Galois fields
B. computing in Gladden fields
C. computing in Gallipoli fields
D. computing in Galbraith fields

Question # 46

Which of the following is true about digital certificate?

A. It is the same as digital signature proving Integrity and Authenticity of the data
B. Electronic credential proving that the person the certificate was issued to is who they claim to be
C. You can only get digital certificate from Verisign, RSA if you wish to prove the key belong to a specific user.
D. Can't contain geography data such as country for example.

Question # 47

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding a digital signature?

A. It is a method used to encrypt confidential data.
B. It is the art of transferring handwritten signature to electronic media.
C. It allows the recipient of data to prove the source and integrity of data.
D. It can be used as a signature system and a cryptosystem.

Question # 48

The Data Encryption Algorithm performs how many rounds of substitution and permutation?

A. 4
B. 16
C. 54
D. 64

Question # 49

Which of the following is NOT a property of a one-way hash function?

A. It converts a message of a fixed length into a message digest of arbitrary length.
B. It is computationally infeasible to construct two different messages with the same digest.
C. It converts a message of arbitrary length into a message digest of a fixed length.
D. Given a digest value, it is computationally infeasible to find the corresponding message.

Question # 50

Which of the following can best be defined as a cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst triesto determine the key from knowledge of some plaintext-ciphertext pairs?

A. A known-plaintext attack
B. A known-algorithm attack
C. A chosen-ciphertext attack
D. A chosen-plaintext attack

Question # 51

Which is NOT a suitable method for distributing certificate revocation information?

A. CA revocation mailing list
B. Delta CRL
C. OCSP (online certificate status protocol)
D. Distribution point CRL

Question # 52

Which of the following can best be defined as a key distribution protocol that uses hybridencryption to convey session keys. This protocol establishes a long-term key once, and thenrequires no prior communication in order to establish or exchange keys on a session-by-sessionbasis?

A. Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
B. Simple Key-management for Internet Protocols (SKIP)
C. Diffie-Hellman Key Distribution Protocol
D. IPsec Key exchange (IKE)

Question # 53

Which of the following can best define the "revocation request grace period"?

A. The period of time allotted within which the user must make a revocation request upon a revocation reason
B. Minimum response time for performing a revocation by the CA
C. Maximum response time for performing a revocation by the CA
D. Time period between the arrival of a revocation request and the publication of the revocation information

Question # 54

Which of the following is defined as an Internet, IPsec, key-establishment protocol, partly based onOAKLEY, that is intended for putting in place authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMPand for other security associations?

A. Internet Key exchange (IKE)
B. Security Association Authentication Protocol (SAAP)
C. Simple Key-management for Internet Protocols (SKIP)
D. Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA)

Question # 55

Which of the following is defined as a key establishment protocol based on the Diffie-Hellmanalgorithm proposed for IPsec but superseded by IKE?

A. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol
B. Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
C. Simple Key-management for Internet Protocols (SKIP)
D. OAKLEY

Question # 56

Which of the following would best describe certificate path validation?

A. Verification of the validity of all certificates of the certificate chain to the root certificate
B. Verification of the integrity of the associated root certificate
C. Verification of the integrity of the concerned private key
D. Verification of the revocation status of the concerned certificate

Question # 57

Which of the following is an Internet IPsec protocol to negotiate, establish, modify, and deletesecurity associations, and to exchange key generation and authentication data, independent of thedetails of any specific key generation technique, key establishment protocol, encryption algorithm,or authentication mechanism?

A. OAKLEY
B. Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
C. Simple Key-management for Internet Protocols (SKIP)
D. IPsec Key exchange (IKE)

Question # 58

Which of the following can be best defined as computing techniques for inseparably embeddingunobtrusive marks or labels as bits in digital data and for detecting or extracting the marks later?

A. Steganography
B. Digital watermarking
C. Digital enveloping
D. Digital signature

Question # 59

What can be defined as a value computed with a cryptographic algorithm and appended to a dataobject in such a way that any recipient of the data can use the signature to verify the data's originand integrity?

A. A digital envelope
B. A cryptographic hash
C. A Message Authentication Code
D. A digital signature

Question # 60

Which of the following would best define a digital envelope?

A. A message that is encrypted and signed with a digital certificate.
B. A message that is signed with a secret key and encrypted with the sender's private key.
C. A message encrypted with a secret key attached with the message. The secret key is encryptedwith the public key of the receiver.
D. A message that is encrypted with the recipient's public key and signed with the sender's privatekey.

Question # 61

A X.509 public key certificate with the key usage attribute "non repudiation" can be used for which of the following?

A. encrypting messages
B. signing messages
C. verifying signed messages
D. decrypt encrypted messages

Question # 62

What enables users to validate each other's certificate when they are certified under differentcertification hierarchies?

A. Cross-certification
B. Multiple certificates
C. Redundant certification authorities
D. Root certification authorities

Question # 63

What does the directive of the European Union on Electronic Signatures deal with?

A. Encryption of classified data
B. Encryption of secret data
C. Non repudiation
D. Authentication of web servers

Question # 64

What is the name of the third party authority that vouches for the binding between the data itemsin a digital certificate?

A. Registration authority
B. Certification authority
C. Issuing authority
D. Vouching authority

Question # 65

What kind of certificate is used to validate a user identity?

A. Public key certificate
B. Attribute certificate
C. Root certificate
D. Code signing certificate

Question # 66

What can be defined as a data structure that enumerates digital certificates that were issued toCAs but have been invalidated by their issuer prior to when they were scheduled to expire?

A. Certificate revocation list
B. Certificate revocation tree
C. Authority revocation list
D. Untrusted certificate list

Question # 67

What is the primary role of smartcards in a PKI?

A. Transparent renewal of user keys
B. Easy distribution of the certificates between the users
C. Fast hardware encryption of the raw data
D. Tamper resistant, mobile storage and application of private keys of the users.

Question # 68

What can be defined as a digital certificate that binds a set of descriptive data items, other than apublic key, either directly to a subject name or to the identifier of another certificate that is a publickey certificate?

A. A public-key certificate
B. An attribute certificate
C. A digital certificate
D. A descriptive certificate

Question # 69

Which of the following binds a subject name to a public key value?

A. A public-key certificate
B. A public key infrastructure
C. A secret key infrastructure
D. A private key certificate

Question # 70

What attribute is included in a X.509-certificate?

A. Distinguished name of the subject
B. Telephone number of the department
C. secret key of the issuing CA
D. the key pair of the certificate holder

Question # 71

What is the name of the protocol use to set up and manage Security Associations (SA) for IPSecurity (IPSec)?

A. Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
B. Secure Key Exchange Mechanism
C. Oakley
D. Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol

Question # 72

Virus scanning and content inspection of SMIME encrypted e-mail without doing any further processing is:

A. Not possible
B. Only possible with key recovery scheme of all user keys
C. It is possible only if X509 Version 3 certificates are used
D. It is possible only by "brute force" decryption

Question # 73

What is the main problem of the renewal of a root CA certificate?

A. It requires key recovery of all end user keys
B. It requires the authentic distribution of the new root CA certificate to all PKI participants
C. It requires the collection of the old root CA certificates from all the users
D. It requires issuance of the new root CA certificate

Question # 74

Which of the following statements pertaining to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is false?

A. The SSL protocol was developed by Netscape to secure Internet client-server transactions.
B. The SSL protocol's primary use is to authenticate the client to the server using public keycryptography and digital certificates.
C. Web pages using the SSL protocol start with HTTPS
D. SSL can be used with applications such as Telnet, FTP and email protocols.

Question # 75

What kind of encryption is realized in the S/MIME-standard?

A. Asymmetric encryption scheme
B. Password based encryption scheme
C. Public key based, hybrid encryption scheme
D. Elliptic curve based encryption

Question # 76

Which of the following was developed in order to protect against fraud in electronic fund transfers(EFT) by ensuring the message comes from its claimed originator and that it has not been alteredin transmission?

A. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
B. Message Authentication Code (MAC)
C. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
D. Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

Question # 77

What is the primary role of cross certification?

A. Creating trust between different PKIs
B. Build an overall PKI hierarchy
C. set up direct trust to a second root CA
D. Prevent the nullification of user certificates by CA certificate revocation

Question # 78

Which of the following elements is NOT included in a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)?

A. Timestamping
B. Repository
C. Certificate revocation
D. Internet Key Exchange (IKE)

Question # 79

In a hierarchical PKI the highest CA is regularly called Root CA, it is also referred to by which one of the following term?

A. Subordinate CA
B. Top Level CA
C. Big CA
D. Master CA

Question # 80

Which type of attack is based on the probability of two different messages using the same hashfunction producing a common message digest?

A. Differential cryptanalysis
B. Differential linear cryptanalysis
C. Birthday attack
D. Statistical attack

Question # 81

Which of the following statements pertaining to message digests is incorrect?

A. The original file cannot be created from the message digest.
B. Two different files should not have the same message digest.
C. The message digest should be calculated using at least 128 bytes of the file.
D. Messages digests are usually of fixed size.

Question # 82

Which of the following encryption algorithms does not deal with discrete logarithms?

A. El Gamal
B. Diffie-Hellman
C. RSA
D. Elliptic Curve

Question # 83

What is NOT true with pre shared key authentication within IKE / IPsec protocol?

A. Pre shared key authentication is normally based on simple passwords
B. Needs a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to work
C. IKE is used to setup Security Associations
D. IKE builds upon the Oakley protocol and the ISAKMP protocol.

Question # 84

Which of the following does NOT concern itself with key management?

A. Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
B. Diffie-Hellman (DH)
C. Cryptology (CRYPTO)
D. Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA)

Question # 85

Cryptography does not concern itself with which of the following choices?

A. Availability
B. Integrity
C. Confidentiality
D. Validation

Question # 86

Which of the following statements pertaining to link encryption is false?

A. It encrypts all the data along a specific communication path.
B. It provides protection against packet sniffers and eavesdroppers.
C. Information stays encrypted from one end of its journey to the other.
D. User information, header, trailers, addresses and routing data that are part of the packets areencrypted.

Question # 87

Which of the following statements pertaining to key management is incorrect?

A. The more a key is used, the shorter its lifetime should be.
B. When not using the full keyspace, the key should be extremely random.
C. Keys should be backed up or escrowed in case of emergencies.
D. A key's lifetime should correspond with the sensitivity of the data it is protecting.

Question # 88

Which of the following is not a one-way hashing algorithm?

A. MD2
B. RC4
C. SHA-1
D. HAVAL

Question # 89

A public key algorithm that does both encryption and digital signature is which of the following?

A. RSA
B. DES
C. IDEA
D. Diffie-Hellman

Question # 90

A one-way hash provides which of the following?

A. Confidentiality
B. Availability
C. Integrity
D. Authentication

Question # 91

PGP uses which of the following to encrypt data?

A. An asymmetric encryption algorithm
B. A symmetric encryption algorithm
C. A symmetric key distribution system
D. An X.509 digital certificate

Question # 92

The Diffie-Hellman algorithm is used for:

A. Encryption
B. Digital signature
C. Key agreement
D. Non-repudiation

Question # 93

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) encryption algorithm has which of the following characteristics?

A. 64 bits of data input results in 56 bits of encrypted output
B. 128 bit key with 8 bits used for parity
C. 64 bit blocks with a 64 bit total key length
D. 56 bits of data input results in 56 bits of encrypted output

Question # 94

Which of the following is not an example of a block cipher?

A. Skipjack
B. IDEA
C. Blowfish
D. RC4

Question # 95

What is the key size of the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)?

A. 64 bits
B. 128 bits
C. 160 bits
D. 192 bits

Question # 96

Brute force attacks against encryption keys have increased in potency because of increased computing power. Which of the following is often considered a good protection against the brute force cryptography attack?

A. The use of good key generators.
B. The use of session keys.
C. Nothing can defend you against a brute force crypto key attack.
D. Algorithms that are immune to brute force key attacks.

Question # 97

How many rounds are used by DES?

A. 16
B. 32
C. 64
D. 48

Question # 98

Which of the following issues is not addressed by digital signatures?

A. nonrepudiation
B. authentication
C. data integrity
D. denial-of-service

Question # 99

Which of the following is more suitable for a hardware implementation?

A. Stream ciphers
B. Block ciphers
C. Cipher block chaining
D. Electronic code book

Question # 100

The primary purpose for using one-way hashing of user passwords within a password file is which of the following?

A. It prevents an unauthorized person from trying multiple passwords in one logon attempt.
B. It prevents an unauthorized person from reading the password.
C. It minimizes the amount of storage required for user passwords.
D. It minimizes the amount of processing time used for encrypting passwords.

Question # 101

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of symmetric cryptography when compared withAsymmetric Ciphers?

A. Provides Limited security services
B. Has no built in Key distribution
C. Speed
D. Large number of keys are needed

Question # 102

Which of the following is best provided by symmetric cryptography?

A. Confidentiality
B. Integrity
C. Availability
D. Non-repudiation

Question # 103

How many bits is the effective length of the key of the Data Encryption Standard algorithm?

A. 168
B. 128
C. 56
D. 64

Question # 104

Which of the following would best describe a Concealment cipher?

A. Permutation is used, meaning that letters are scrambled.
B. Every X number of words within a text, is a part of the real message.
C. Replaces bits, characters, or blocks of characters with different bits, characters or blocks.
D. Hiding data in another message so that the very existence of the data is concealed.

Question # 105

What key size is used by the Clipper Chip?

A. 40 bits
B. 56 bits
C. 64 bits
D. 80 bits

Question # 106

Which of the following is not an encryption algorithm?

A. Skipjack
B. SHA-1
C. Twofish
D. DEA

Question # 107

What is NOT an authentication method within IKE and IPsec?

A. CHAP
B. Pre shared key
C. certificate based authentication
D. Public key authentication

Question # 108

Which of the following was not designed to be a proprietary encryption algorithm?

A. RC2
B. RC4
C. Blowfish
D. Skipjack

Question # 109

In which phase of Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol is peer authentication performed?

A. Pre Initialization Phase
B. Phase 1
C. Phase 2
D. No peer authentication is performed

Question # 110

Which of the following is less likely to be used today in creating a Virtual Private Network?

A. L2TP
B. PPTP
C. IPSec
D. L2F

Question # 111

What is the role of IKE within the IPsec protocol?

A. peer authentication and key exchange
B. data encryption
C. data signature
D. enforcing quality of service

Question # 112

In a SSL session between a client and a server, who is responsible for generating the mastersecret that will be used as a seed to generate the symmetric keys that will be used during thesession?

A. Both client and server
B. The client's browser
C. The web server
D. The merchant's Certificate Server

Question # 113

Which of the following are suitable protocols for securing VPN connections at the lower layers of the OSI model?

A. S/MIME and SSH
B. TLS and SSL
C. IPsec and L2TP
D. PKCS#10 and X.509

Question # 114

Which of the following algorithms is a stream cipher?

A. RC2
B. RC4
C. RC5
D. RC6

Question # 115

What is the maximum key size for the RC5 algorithm?

A. 128 bits
B. 256 bits
C. 1024 bits
D. 2040 bits

Question # 116

The Clipper Chip utilizes which concept in public key cryptography?

A. Substitution
B. Key Escrow
C. An undefined algorithm
D. Super strong encryption

Question # 117

The RSA Algorithm uses which mathematical concept as the basis of its encryption?

A. Geometry
B. 16-round ciphers
C. PI (3.14159...)
D. Two large prime numbers

Question # 118

Which of the following is NOT a known type of Message Authentication Code (MAC)?

A. Keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC)
B. DES-CBC
C. Signature-based MAC (SMAC)
D. Universal Hashing Based MAC (UMAC)

Question # 119

The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) creates: 

A. a fixed length message digest from a fixed length input message
B. a variable length message digest from a variable length input message
C. a fixed length message digest from a variable length input message D.
D. a variable length message digest from a fixed length input message

Question # 120

Which of the following is the most secure form of triple-DES encryption?

A. DES-EDE3
B. DES-EDE1
C. DES-EEE4
D. DES-EDE2

Question # 121

What is the length of an MD5 message digest?

A. 128 bits
B. 160 bits
C. 256 bits
D. varies depending upon the message size.

Question # 122

A code, as is pertains to cryptography:

A. Is a generic term for encryption.
B. Is specific to substitution ciphers.
C. Deals with linguistic units.
D. Is specific to transposition ciphers.

Question # 123

In a known plaintext attack, the cryptanalyst has knowledge of which of the following?

A. the ciphertext and the key
B. the plaintext and the secret key
C. both the plaintext and the associated ciphertext of several messages
D. the plaintext and the algorithm

Question # 124

Which of the following is best at defeating frequency analysis?

A. Substitution cipher
B. Polyalphabetic cipher
C. Transposition cipher
D. Ceasar Cipher

Question # 125

Which of the following ciphers is a subset on which the Vigenere polyalphabetic cipher was based on?

A. Caesar
B. The Jefferson disks
C. Enigma
D. SIGABA

Question # 126

What is used to bind a document to its creation at a particular time?

A. Network Time Protocol (NTP)
B. Digital Signature
C. Digital Timestamp
D. Certification Authority (CA)

Question # 127

Which of the following is NOT a true statement regarding the implementaton of the 3DES modes?

A. DES-EEE1 uses one key
B. DES-EEE2 uses two keys
C. DES-EEE3 uses three keys
D. DES-EDE2 uses two keys

Question # 128

Which of the following cryptographic attacks describes when the attacker has a copy of the plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext?

A. known plaintext
B. nbrute force
C. ciphertext only
D. chosen plaintext

Question # 129

Cryptography does NOT help in:

A. Detecting fraudulent insertion.
B. Detecting fraudulent deletion.
C. Detecting fraudulent modification.
D. Detecting fraudulent disclosure.

Question # 130

Which of the following is a cryptographic protocol and infrastructure developed to send encrypted credit card numbers over the Internet?

A. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
B. MONDEX
C. Secure Shell (SSH-2)
D. Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP)

Question # 131

Which of the following protocols that provide integrity and authentication for IPSec, can also provide non-repudiation in IPSec?

A. Authentication Header (AH)
B. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
C. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
D. Secure Shell (SSH-2)

Question # 132

Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is not defined as a preparation that facilitates:

A. the rapid recovery of mission-critical business operations
B. the continuation of critical business functions
C. the monitoring of threat activity for adjustment of technical controls
D. the reduction of the impact of a disaster

Question # 133

How often should tests and disaster recovery drills be performed?

A. At least once a quarter
B. At least once every 6 months
C. At least once a year
D. At least once every 2 years

Question # 134

What are the three most important functions that Digital Signatures perform?

A. Integrity, Confidentiality and Authorization
B. Integrity, Authentication and Nonrepudiation
C. Authorization, Authentication and Nonrepudiation
D. Authorization, Detection and Accountability

Question # 135

After a company is out of an emergency state, what should be moved back to the original sitefirst?

A. Executives
B. Least critical components
C. IT support staff
D. Most critical components

Question # 136

Compared to RSA, which of the following is true of Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC)?

A. It has been mathematically proved to be more secure.
B. It has been mathematically proved to be less secure.
C. It is believed to require longer key for equivalent security.
D. It is believed to require shorter keys for equivalent security.

Question # 137

What is electronic vaulting?

A. Information is backed up to tape on a hourly basis and is stored in a on-site vault.
B. Information is backed up to tape on a daily basis and is stored in a on-site vault.
C. Transferring electronic journals or transaction logs to an off-site storage facility
D. A transfer of bulk information to a remote central backup facility.

Question # 138

Which of the following identifies the encryption algorithm selected by NIST for the new Advanced  Encryption Standard?

A. Twofish
B. Serpent
C. RC6
D. Rijndael

Question # 139

Which backup type run at regular intervals would take the least time to complete?

A. Full Backup
B. Differential Backup
C. Incremental Backup
D. Disk Mirroring

Question # 140

Of the reasons why a Disaster Recovery plan gets outdated, which of the following is not true?

A. Personnel turnover
B. Large plans can take a lot of work to maintain
C. Continous auditing makes a Disaster Recovery plan irrelevant
D. Infrastructure and environment changes

Question # 141

A public key algorithm that does both encryption and digital signature is which of the following?

A. RSA
B. DES
C. IDEA
D. Diffie-Hellman

Question # 142

Of the following, which is NOT a specific loss criteria that should be considered while developing aBIA?

A. Loss of skilled workers knowledge
B. Loss in revenue
C. Loss in profits
D. Loss in reputation

Question # 143

PGP uses which of the following to encrypt data?

A. An asymmetric encryption algorithm
B. A symmetric encryption algorithm
C. A symmetric key distribution system
D. An X.509 digital certificate

Question # 144

All of the following can be considered essential business functions that should be identified whencreating a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) except one. Which of the following would not beconsidered an essential element of the BIA but an important TOPIC to include within the BCPplan:

A. IT Network Support
B. Accounting
C. Public Relations
D. Purchasing

Question # 145

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) encryption algorithm has which of the following characteristics?

A. 64 bits of data input results in 56 bits of encrypted output
B. 128 bit key with 8 bits used for parity
C. 64 bit blocks with a 64 bit total key length
D. 56 bits of data input results in 56 bits of encrypted output

Question # 146

Which of the following best describes remote journaling?

A. Send hourly tapes containing transactions off-site.
B. Send daily tapes containing transactions off-site.
C. Real-time capture of transactions to multiple storage devices.
D. Real time transmission of copies of the entries in the journal of transactions to an alternate site.

Question # 147

What is a hot-site facility?

A. A site with pre-installed computers, raised flooring, air conditioning, telecommunications andnetworking equipment, and UPS.
B. A site in which space is reserved with pre-installed wiring and raised floors.
C. A site with raised flooring, air conditioning, telecommunications, and networking equipment, andUPS.
D. A site with ready made work space with telecommunications equipment, LANs, PCs, and terminalsfor work groups.

Question # 148

Brute force attacks against encryption keys have increased in potency because of increased computing power. Which of the following is often considered a good protection against the brute force cryptography attack?

A. The use of good key generators.
B. The use of session keys.
C. Nothing can defend you against a brute force crypto key attack.
D. Algorithms that are immune to brute force key attacks.

Question # 149

Which of the following will a Business Impact Analysis NOT identify?

A. Areas that would suffer the greatest financial or operational loss in the event of a disaster.
B. Systems critical to the survival of the enterprise.
C. The names of individuals to be contacted during a disaster.
D. The outage time that can be tolerated by the enterprise as a result of a disaster.

Question # 150

Which of the following issues is not addressed by digital signatures?

A. nonrepudiation
B. authentication
C. data integrity
D. denial-of-service

Question # 151

For which areas of the enterprise are business continuity plans required?

A. All areas of the enterprise.
B. The financial and information processing areas of the enterprise.
C. The operating areas of the enterprise.
D. The marketing, finance, and information processing areas.

Question # 152

Which element must computer evidence have to be admissible in court?

A. It must be relevant.
B. It must be annotated.
C. It must be printed.
D. It must contain source code.

Question # 153

The deliberate planting of apparent flaws in a system for the purpose of detecting attemptedpenetrations or confusing an intruder about which flaws to exploit is called:

A. alteration
B. investigation
C. entrapment
D. enticement.

Question # 154

The primary purpose for using one-way hashing of user passwords within a password file is whichof the following?

A .It prevents an unauthorized person from trying multiple passwords in one logon attempt.
B. It prevents an unauthorized person from reading the password.
C. It minimizes the amount of storage required for user passwords.
D. It minimizes the amount of processing time used for encrypting passwords.

Question # 155

Under the principle of culpable negligence, executives can be held liable for losses that result fromcomputer system breaches if:

A. The company is not a multi-national company.
B. They have not exercised due care protecting computing resources.
C. They have failed to properly insure computer resources against loss.
D. The company does not prosecute the hacker that caused the breach.

Question # 156

Which of the following best defines a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)?

A. An organization that provides a secure channel for receiving reports about suspected securityincidents.
B. An organization that ensures that security incidents are reported to the authorities.
C. An organization that coordinates and supports the response to security incidents.
D. An organization that disseminates incident-related information to its constituency and otherinvolved parties.

Question # 157

Which of the following categories of hackers poses the greatest threat?

A. Disgruntled employees
B. Student hackers
C. Criminal hackers
D. Corporate spies

Question # 158

How many bits is the effective length of the key of the Data Encryption Standard algorithm?

A. 168
B. 128
C. 56
D. 64

Question # 159

Under the Business Exemption Rule to the hearsay evidence, which of the following exceptionswould have no bearing on the inadmissibility of audit logs and audit trails in a court of law?

A. Records are collected during the regular conduct of business.
B. Records are collected by senior or executive management.
C. Records are collected at or near the time of occurrence of the act being investigated to generateautomated reports.
D. You can prove no one could have changed the records/data/logs that were collected.

Question # 160

Which type of algorithm is considered to have the highest strength per bit of key length of any of the asymmetric algorithms?

A. Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA)
B. El Gamal
C. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
D. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Question # 161

What is defined as inference of information from other, intermediate, relevant facts?

A. Secondary evidence
B. Conclusive evidence
C. Hearsay evidence
D. Circumstantial evidence

Question # 162

Which of the following statements is true about data encryption as a method of protecting data?

A. It should sometimes be used for password files
B. It is usually easily administered
C. It makes few demands on system resources
D. It requires careful key management

Question # 163

Which of the following is a problem regarding computer investigation issues?

A. Information is tangible.
B. Evidence is easy to gather.
C. Computer-generated records are only considered secondary evidence, thus are not as reliable asbest evidence.
D. In many instances, an expert or specialist is not required.

Question # 164

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) uses asymmetric key encryption between parties. The originator encrypts information using the intended recipient's "public" key in order to get confidentiality of the data being sent. The recipients use their own "private" key to decrypt the information. The "Infrastructure" of this methodology ensures that:

A. The sender and recipient have reached a mutual agreement on the encryption key exchange that they will use.
B. The channels through which the information flows are secure.
C. The recipient's identity can be positively verified by the sender.
D. The sender of the message is the only other person with access to the recipient's private key.

Question # 165

If an employee's computer has been used by a fraudulent employee to commit a crime, the harddisk may be seized as evidence and once the investigation is complete it would follow the normalsteps of the Evidence Life Cycle. In such case, the Evidence life cycle would not include which ofthe following steps listed below?

A. Acquisition collection and identification
B. Analysis
C. Storage, preservation, and transportation
D. Destruction

Question # 166

Where parties do not have a shared secret and large quantities of sensitive information must be passed, the most efficient means of transferring information is to use Hybrid Encryption Methods. What does this mean?

A. Use of public key encryption to secure a secret key, and message encryption using the secret key.
B. Use of the recipient's public key for encryption and decryption based on the recipient's private key.
C. Use of software encryption assisted by a hardware encryption accelerator.
D. Use of elliptic curve encryption.

Question # 167

Which of the following statements pertaining to disaster recovery is incorrect?

A. A recovery team's primary task is to get the pre-defined critical business functions at the alternatebackup processing site.
B. A salvage team's task is to ensure that the primary site returns to normal processing conditions.
C. The disaster recovery plan should include how the company will return from the alternate site tothe primary site.
D. When returning to the primary site, the most critical applications should be brought back first.

Question # 168

What is a characteristic of using the Electronic Code Book mode of DES encryption?

A. A given block of plaintext and a given key will always produce the same ciphertext.
B. Repetitive encryption obscures any repeated patterns that may have been present in the plaintext.
C. Individual characters are encoded by combining output from earlier encryption routines with plaintext.
D. The previous DES output is used as input.

Question # 169

Which of the following is the most complete disaster recovery plan test type, to be performed aftersuccessfully completing the Parallel test?

A. Full Interruption test
B. Checklist test
C. Simulation test
D. Structured walk-through test

Question # 170

What algorithm was DES derived from?

A.  Twofish.
B. Skipjack.
C. Brooks-Aldeman.
D. Lucifer.

Question # 171

What can be defined as a batch process dumping backup data through communications lines to aserver at an alternate location?

A. Remote journaling
B. Electronic vaulting
C. Data clustering
D. Database shadowing

Question # 172

Which of the following statements do not apply to a hot site?

A. It is expensive.
B. There are cases of common overselling of processing capabilities by the service provider.
C. It provides a false sense of security.
D. It is accessible on a first come first serve basis. In case of large disaster it might not be accessible.

Question # 173

Which of the following encryption methods is known to be unbreakable?

A. Symmetric ciphers.
B. DES codebooks.
C. One-time pads.
D. Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

Question # 174

Which of the following statements pertaining to disaster recovery planning is incorrect?

A. Every organization must have a disaster recovery plan
B. A disaster recovery plan contains actions to be taken before, during and after a disruptive event.
C. The major goal of disaster recovery planning is to provide an organized way to make decisions if adisruptive event occurs.
D. A disaster recovery plan should cover return from alternate facilities to primary facilities.

Question # 175

The DES algorithm is an example of what type of cryptography?

A. Secret Key
B. Two-key
C. Asymmetric Key
D. Public Key

Question # 176

Kerberos depends upon what encryption method?

A. Public Key cryptography.
B. Secret Key cryptography.
C. El Gamal cryptography.
D. Blowfish cryptography.

Question # 177

When preparing a business continuity plan, who of the following is responsible for identifying andprioritizing time-critical systems?

A. Executive management staff
B. Senior business unit management
C. BCP committee
D. Functional business units

Question # 178

The RSA algorithm is an example of what type of cryptography?

A. Asymmetric Key.
B. Symmetric Key.
C. Secret Key.
D. Private Key.

Question # 179

A business continuity plan is an example of which of the following?

A. Corrective control
B. Detective control
C. Preventive control
D. Compensating control

Question # 180

Which of the following is true about Kerberos?

A. It utilizes public key cryptography.
B. It encrypts data after a ticket is granted, but passwords are exchanged in plain text.
C. It depends upon symmetric ciphers.
D. It is a second party authentication system.

Question # 181

Most access violations are:

A. Accidental
B. Caused by internal hackers
C. Caused by external hackers
D. Related to Internet

Question # 182

Which of the following service is a distributed database that translate host name to IP address to IP address to host name?

A. DNS
B.  FTP
C. SSH
D. SMTP

Question # 183

What can be defined as an event that could cause harm to the information systems?

A. A risk
B. A threat
C. A vulnerability
D. A weakness

Question # 184

When should a post-mortem review meeting be held after an intrusion has been properly takencare of?

A. Within the first three months after the investigation of the intrusion is completed.
B. Within the first week after prosecution of intruders have taken place, whether successful or not.
C. Within the first month after the investigation of the intrusion is completed.
D. Within the first week of completing the investigation of the intrusion.

Question # 185

When referring to a computer crime investigation, which of the following would be the MOSTimportant step required in order to preserve and maintain a proper chain of custody of evidence:

A. Evidence has to be collected in accordance with all laws and all legal regulations.
B. Law enforcement officials should be contacted for advice on how and when to collect criticalinformation.
C. Verifiable documentation indicating the who, what, when, where, and how the evidence washandled should be available.
D. Log files containing information regarding an intrusion are retained for at least as long as normalbusiness records, and longer in the case of an ongoing investigation.

Question # 186

While using IPsec, the ESP and AH protocols both provides integrity services. However when using AH, some special attention needs to be paid if one of the peers uses NAT for address translation service. Which of the items below would affects the use of AH and it´s Integrity Check Value (ICV) the most?

A. Key session exchange
B. Packet Header Source or Destination address
C. VPN cryptographic key size
D. Crypotographic algorithm used

Question # 187

In order to be able to successfully prosecute an intruder:

A. A point of contact should be designated to be responsible for communicating with law enforcementand other external agencies.
B. A proper chain of custody of evidence has to be preserved.
C. Collection of evidence has to be done following predefined procedures.
D. Whenever possible, analyze a replica of the compromised resource, not the original, therebyavoiding inadvertently tamping with evidence.

Question # 188

When first analyzing an intrusion that has just been detected and confirming that it is a truepositive, which of the following actions should be done as a first step if you wish to prosecute theattacker in court?

A. Back up the compromised systems.
B. Identify the attacks used to gain access.
C. Capture and record system information.
D. Isolate the compromised systems.

Question # 189

At which layer of ISO/OSI does the fiber optics work?

A. Network layer
B. Transport layer
C. Data link layer
D. Physical layer

Question # 190

When a possible intrusion into your organization's information system has been detected, which ofthe following actions should be performed first?

A. Eliminate all means of intruder access.
B. Contain the intrusion.
C. Determine to what extent systems and data are compromised.
D. Communicate with relevant parties.

Question # 191

Which of the following media is MOST resistant to EMI interference?

A. microwave
B. fiber optic
C. twisted pair
D. coaxial cable

Question # 192

Which of the following questions is less likely to help in assessing an organization's contingencyplanning controls?

A. Is damaged media stored and/or destroyed?
B. Are the backup storage site and alternate site geographically far enough from the primary site?
C. Is there an up-to-date copy of the plan stored securely off-site?
D. Is the location of stored backups identified?

Question # 193

What is a packet sniffer?

A. It tracks network connections to off-site locations.
B. It monitors network traffic for illegal packets.
C. It scans network segments for cabling faults.
D. It captures network traffic for later analysis.

Question # 194

Which of the following is an advantage of a qualitative over a quantitative risk analysis?

A. It prioritizes the risks and identifies areas for immediate improvement in addressing thevulnerabilities.
B. It provides specific quantifiable measurements of the magnitude of the impacts.
C. It makes a cost-benefit analysis of recommended controls easier.
D. It can easily be automated.

Question # 195

Which type of attack would a competitive intelligence attack best classify as?

A. Business attack
B. Intelligence attack
C. Financial attack
D. Grudge attack

Question # 196

Which one of the following is used to provide authentication and confidentiality for e-mail messages? 

A. Digital signature
B. PGP
C. IPSEC AH
D. MD4

Question # 197

Why would a memory dump be admissible as evidence in court?

A. Because it is used to demonstrate the truth of the contents.
B. Because it is used to identify the state of the system.
C. Because the state of the memory cannot be used as evidence.
D. Because of the exclusionary rule.

Question # 198

Why is traffic across a packet switched network difficult to monitor?

A. Packets are link encrypted by the carrierl
B. Government regulations forbids monitoring
C. Packets can take multiple paths when transmitted
D. The network factor is too high

Question # 199

Which of the following would best describe secondary evidence?

A. Oral testimony by a non-expert witness
B. Oral testimony by an expert witness
C. A copy of a piece of evidence
D. Evidence that proves a specific act

Question # 200

Which of the following would be MOST important to guarantee that the computer evidence will beadmissible in court?

A. It must prove a fact that is immaterial to the case.
B. Its reliability must be proven.
C. The process for producing it must be documented and repeatable.
D. The chain of custody of the evidence must show who collected, secured, controlled, handled,transported the evidence, and that it was not tampered with.

Question # 201

Another name for a VPN is a:

A. tunnel
B. one-time password
C. pipeline
D. bypass

Question # 202

Computer-generated evidence is considered:

A. Best evidence
B. Second hand evidence
C. Demonstrative evidence
D. Direct evidence

Question # 203

Layer 4 of the OSI stack is known as:

A. the data link layer
B. the transport layer
C. the network layer
D. the presentation layer

Question # 204

Within the legal domain what rule is concerned with the legality of how the evidence was gathered?

A. Exclusionary rule
B. Best evidence rule
C. Hearsay rule
D. Investigation rule

Question # 205

Why does fiber optic communication technology have significant security advantage over other transmission technology?

A. Higher data rates can be transmitted.
B. Interception of data traffic is more difficult.
C. Traffic analysis is prevented by multiplexing.
D. Single and double-bit errors are correctable.

Question # 206

Failure of a contingency plan is usually:

A. A technical failure.
B. A management failure.
C. Because of a lack of awareness.
D. Because of a lack of training.

Question # 207

Which of the following packets should NOT be dropped at a firewall protecting an organization's internal network?

A. Inbound packets with Source Routing option set
B. Router information exchange protocols
C. Inbound packets with an internal address as the source IP address
D. Outbound packets with an external destination IP address

Question # 208

The MOST common threat that impacts a business's ability to function normally is:

A. Power Outage
B. Water Damage
C. Severe Weather
D. Labor Strike

Question # 209

In the context of network enumeration by an outside attacker and possible Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, which of the following firewall rules is not appropriate to protect an organization's internal network?

A. Allow echo reply outbound
B. Allow echo request outbound
C. Drop echo request inbound
D. Allow echo reply inbound

Question # 210

The first step in the implementation of the contingency plan is to perform:

A. A firmware backup
B. A data backup
C. An operating systems software backup
D. An application software backup

Question # 211

What can be best defined as the examination of threat sources against system vulnerabilities todetermine the threats for a particular system in a particular operational environment?

A. Risk management
B. Risk analysis
C. Threat analysis
D. Due diligence

Question # 212

Which of the following is the primary security feature of a proxy server?

A. Virus Detection
B. URL blocking
C. Route blocking
D. Content filtering

Question # 213

Which of the following best allows risk management results to be used knowledgeably?

A. A vulnerability analysis
B. A likelihood assessment
C. An uncertainty analysis
D. A threat identification

Question # 214

Computer security should be first and foremost which of the following:

A. Cover all identified risks
B. Be cost-effective.
C. Be examined in both monetary and non-monetary terms.
D. Be proportionate to the value of IT systems.

Question # 215

Which of the following NAT firewall translation modes offers no protection from hacking attacks to an internal host using this functionality?

A. Network redundancy translation
B. Load balancing translation
C. Dynamic translation
D. Static translation

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